By William D. Davies
Madurese is a big neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, in most cases at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there isn't any latest complete descriptive grammar of the language, with current experiences being both sketches of the total grammar, or particular descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific subject matters inside of those elements of the grammar. there's no competing paintings that gives the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, specifically (though no longer completely) in regards to syntax.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50)
H] occurs primarily in initial position in words that are largely of Arabic origin. There are 67 entries for h in Pawitra 2009 and 38 in Safioedin 1977. /h/ glottal fricative [h] in syllable-initial position [haḍirin] ‘audience’ (Arabic) [hɔrma] ‘honor’ (Indonesian hormat) [hɔtɛl] ‘hotel’ [f] occurs in loanwords from a variety of languages. Pawitra list 29 for f in his dictionary and Safioedin 17 in his. g. [wawancara] ‘interview’ from Indonesian), the relatively small number of dictionary entries is indicative of the circumscribed nature of its use.
Or /d. / in Madurese. (6) Madurese /d. apa/ /d. atə/ /sapɛḍa/ /t. ampɔl/ /t. ɔɔ/ [d. ɤpa] [d. ɤtə] [sapɛḍɤ] [t. ɤmpɔl] [t. 2. Vowels Many vowel correspondences between Madurese and Indonesian are quite regular because the quality of the Madurese vowel is conditioned by a rule of vowel raising in which high vowels occur after aspirated and voiced stops and mid and low vowels elsewhere. (The process and the limited exceptions are discussed more fully in section 4). Because the surface form is more revealing in the case of vowels, phonetic representations of Madurese and Indonesian are compared here.
46 Chapter 2 Phonology 6. Morphophonemic processes There are a number of morphophonemic rules which apply only in the environment of specific morphemes. j-epenthesis. Discussed in the previous section is j-epenthesis, the sole exception to glottal insertion and a process distinct from glide epenthesis. j-epenthesis occurs only when the object voice prefix - precedes a stem-initial or when the object of the preposition ɛ ‘at’ has a stem-initial ɛ. In this environment, the palatal glide [j] is epenthesized between the two vowels.
A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50) by William D. Davies