Download PDF by Zygmunt Frajzyngier: A Grammar of Wandala

By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed primary Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic process, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all sensible domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of diverse from the constitution of alternative Chadic languages defined to this point in either the formal skill and the capabilities which have been grammaticalized. The grammar presents proofs for the postulated hypotheses touching on varieties and services. The grammar is written in a method obtainable to linguists operating inside of assorted theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised through a wealthy consonantal procedure, a 3 vowel method, and a tone approach. The language has plentiful vowel insertion ideas and a vowel concord process. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 ideas enable the parsing of the clause into components. The language has 3 varieties of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The unfavorable paradigms of verbs range from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and large approach of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic kin in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can stick with various ingredients. The grammatical position of that argument is coded by means of inflectional markers at the verb and such a lot curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical relatives further to verbs are diverse for various periods of verbs.

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Thus, the noun úkkùlà ‘chicken’ most probably has an initial geminated k. 2 Clusters in word-initial position Clusters of a sonorant and a stop or a stop and a sonorant are common in word-initial position: br pw rɗ gm brè ‘single house in a compound’ pwà fíya ‘to fart’ (lit. ‘pour air’ (a polite form)): pə̀ʃà rɗé ‘to fart’ (a vulgar term) (rɗé ‘fart’; the only other attested meaning for the verb pə̀ʃà is ‘milk’) gmà ‘loan’ Phonotactics of consonants 37 Nasals do not have to be homorganic with the following consonant: mtù ‘or’, mdè ‘people’.

An argument for such a possibility is provided by the possessive construction in which nouns with final phonetic [i] are followed by the genitive marker á. The product of such a sequence is the palatal glide followed by the vowel a: Underlying u 45 (48) nyárì-á-tàré → bad behavior-GEN-3PL ‘their bad behavior’ [nyáry-á-tàré] If the word nyárì had an underlying word-final i, it would have been deleted before the genitive suffix, and there would have been no trace of it as a palatal glide or in any other form.

Therefore, if an epenthetic vowel cannot be inserted between the perceptually initial and final components of a sound, that sound represents a complex single segment. If an epenthetic vowel can occur there, the sound represents a cluster of underlying segments. 1 Underlying consonants and glides Lab. Stops Voiceless p Voiced b Prenasalized Glottalized ɓ Affricates Continuants Voiceless Voiced Nasals Liquids f v m Lateral continuants Voiceless Voiced Glides w Alv. Pal. Pal-Vel Velar t d mb ɗ ts dz py dy nd y’ c j s z n r l ʃ ky gy k g Lab-Vel Glottal kp ŋg ɠw ɠy h ž ɲ ry ŋ ɬ ɮ y Another test of segmental structure is provided by the formation of the plural form of verbs through the insertion of the vowel a after the first consonant of the root.

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A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier


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