Peter Ravenscroft's Arsenic pollution: a global synthesis PDF

By Peter Ravenscroft

ISBN-10: 1405186011

ISBN-13: 9781405186018

ISBN-10: 140518602X

ISBN-13: 9781405186025

ISBN-10: 1444308793

ISBN-13: 9781444308792

Arsenic pollutants summarizes the most up-tp-date study at the distribution and explanations of arsenic pollutants, its influence on well-being and agriculture, and ideas when it comes to water offer, remedy, and water source administration.

  • Provides the 1st worldwide and interdisciplinary account of arsenic toxins occurrences
  • Integrates geochemistry, hydrology, agriculture, and water offer and therapy for the 1st time
  • Options are highlighted for constructing replacement water assets and techniques for arsenic checking out and elimination
  • Appeals to experts in a single self-discipline looking an summary of the paintings being performed in different disciplines

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Example text

Although the use of groundwater supplies began in the 1930s, it accelerated particularly after 1970 and into the 1990s, partly as a result of a deliberate policy promoted by UNICEF to reduce child mortality associated with enteric diseases. Tens of millions of cheap, shallow tubewells were drilled to obtain microbiologically safe drinking water. The major aim was to avoid polluted surface water sources that had caused widespread diarrhoeal disease. To this end, there was considerable success: in Bangladesh, between 1960 and 1996, child mortality dropped from 151 to 83 per thousand (Meharg, 2005).

In India, Bangladesh and Taiwan, exposure has resulted in widespread clinical effects, ranging from skin lesions to cancer and death, yet in Nepal, Cambodia and Vietnam there have been few diagnoses of arsenicosis to date. Elsewhere, pollution of alluvial aquifers has resulted in severe arsenicosis in at least three provinces of China. In North America, the USA is affected by extremely widespread and diverse cases of arsenic contamination, but the concentrations are typically lower than in Asia and diagnosed cases of arsenicosis are almost unknown.

Oxide minerals do not take arsenic into their structure, but have a great capacity to adsorb arsenic onto their surface. Iron oxides are the most important minerals in controlling the occurrence of arsenic in groundwater. In contrast to sulphides, oxides are formed in environments where there are ready sources of oxygen, and conversely break down and dissolve in anaerobic environments. Thus, there are two competing means of trapping arsenic in minerals, under oxidising and reducing conditions, and so arsenic contamination occurs where, for reasons described later, neither sulphides nor oxides can remove arsenic from solution.

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Arsenic pollution: a global synthesis by Peter Ravenscroft

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