By Patrick Richard (Eds.)
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Additional info for Atomic Physics: Accelerators
19). I gives the stopping property of a given target Z,, and is some energy that target electrons can obtain from a very fast projectile. This term is a weighted average of all the excitation and ionization processes possible for a given atom. For light target atoms each of which contains very few electrons, this value can be calculated by quantum-mechanical methods.
Donets and V . P. Ovsyannikov, JINR P7-10438 Dubna (1977). J . Arianer and Ch. Goldstein, IPNO-70-02 Orsay (1979). 22 1. INTRODUCTION curred, which seem to have caused a gradual but steady rise in the study of the accelerated-ion method and the type of physics one obtains from the strong interaction between ions and atoms of comparable nuclear charges. One of the first of these types of studies was performed interestingly enough with radioactive sources. Armbrusters5 and SpechP studied the X-ray emission from high-energy heavy-ion-atom collisions using the energetic fission fragments from fission sources.
R. Hafstad, Phys. Rei.. 2. ACCELERATED IONS FOR ATOMIC COLLISIONS 9 Darbyzl and again in 1951 by A1varez2* It was developed to practicality by High Voltage Engineering Corporationz3in 1960. The principle of the tandem is to charge the terminal to some positive voltage just as in the conventional Van de Graaff, but to have two acceleration columns, one on either side of the terminal. Negative ions are accelerated toward the terminal and then stripped by a gas or thin foil to form positive ions, which are then accelerated away from the terminal in the second column just as in the regular one-stage Van de Graaff.
Atomic Physics: Accelerators by Patrick Richard (Eds.)