Monty Newborn's Automated Theorem Proving: Theory and Practice PDF

By Monty Newborn

ISBN-10: 1461265193

ISBN-13: 9781461265191

ISBN-10: 1461300894

ISBN-13: 9781461300892

As the twenty first century starts, the facility of our magical new software and accomplice, the pc, is expanding at an spectacular fee. pcs that practice billions of operations in keeping with moment are actually general. Multiprocessors with millions of little desktops - particularly little! -can now perform parallel computations and resolve difficulties in seconds that very few years in the past took days or months. Chess-playing courses are on an excellent footing with the world's top gamers. IBM's Deep Blue defeated global champion Garry Kasparov in a fit a number of years in the past. more and more desktops are anticipated to be extra clever, to cause, so as to draw conclusions from given proof, or abstractly, to turn out theorems-the topic of this booklet. particularly, this e-book is set theorem-proving courses, THEO and HERBY. the 1st 4 chapters comprise introductory fabric approximately computerized theorem proving and the 2 courses. This contains fabric at the language used to specific theorems, predicate calculus, and the foundations of inference. This additionally features a description of a 3rd application integrated with this package deal, referred to as collect. As defined in bankruptcy three, assemble transforms predicate calculus expressions into clause shape as required by means of HERBY and THEO. bankruptcy five provides the theoretical foundations of seman­ tic tree theorem proving as played through HERBY. bankruptcy 6 offers the theoretical foundations of resolution-refutation theorem proving as according to­ shaped by means of THEO. Chapters 7 and eight describe HERBY and the way to exploit it.

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Example text

These instances are called atoms. The Herbrand base is a finite set, or, if not finite, a countably infinite set. When the atoms are listed recursively, they are said to be in canonical order. 3. THM) = {P(a), Q(a), P(f(a)), Q(f(a)), P(f(f(a))), Q(f(f(a))), ... 4. THM) = {P(a,a), Q(a,a), P(a,h(a,a)), Q(a,h(a,a)), P(h(a,a),a), Q(h(a,a),a), ... 5. 3 An Interpretation on the Herbrand Base An interpretation on the Herbrand base is an assignment of the value of TRUE or FALSE to each atom. If the number of atoms in the Herbrand base is finite- say there are Natoms- then the number of interpretations is 2N.

2. THM. 2. As a second example, consider HU2. 2. Because there is no constant in the theorem, the constant a is initially added to the Herbrand universe. THM) ={a, h(a,a), h(a,h(a,a)), h(h(a,a),a), h(h(a,a),h(a,a)), h(a,h(a,h(a,a))), h(h(a,a),h(a,h(a,a))), h(h(a,h(a,a)),a), h(h(a,h(a,a)),h(a,a)), ... 2 The Herbrand Base of a Set of Clauses The Herbrand base of a set of clauses S, denoted HB(S), is defined as the set of all ground instances of the predicates of S where the arguments of the predicates are all possible combinations of the terms of the Herbrand universe of S.

Let C1 and C2 be two clauses, and let their resolvent C3 be formed by resolving on literal L1 in C1 and literal L2 in C2 using mgu ll· Assume literal L1 is uncomplemented. l can be shown to follow logically from C1 and C2, as follows. l, which is C3. 6). 11 Base Clauses and Inferred Clauses The set of base clauses are the clauses that constitute the axioms, the hypotheses, and the negated conclusion. When one attempts to find a proof, other inferred clauses are generated from the base clauses. Exercises for Chapter 4 Note that in the problems that follow, the symbols a, b, 2, 3, 4, and 5 represent constants.

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