By Hiram Gilbert
This moment version keeps to innovatively overview the hardest ideas in biochemistry for optimum comprehension in a quick time period. in contrast to traditional texts or evaluation books that tension memorizing evidence, uncomplicated options stresses the studying of primary ideas, in order that the reader really comprehends the cloth and feels cozy using it. Dr. Gilbert makes use of basic, jargon-free language and award-winning educating concepts together with algorithms, mnemonics and scientific examples.
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Extra resources for Basic concepts in biochemistry: a students survival guide
Now you have to consider the concentration gradient. Since the Naϩ is higher inside than outside, the concentration gradient would make it harder to move the Naϩ from outside to inside (what we assumed originally). 95 kcal/mol. The easiest thing to do here is to forget whether outside or inside is on top of the BG McGraw-Hill: Gilbert, Basic Concepts in Biochemistry, JN 5036 • 34 • Basic Concepts in Biochemistry ratio of concentrations. If you make a mistake here, all it will do is change the sign of ⌬G, not the magnitude of the number.
Active transport (pump): molecule moves up its electrochemical gradient (requires energy input). Pumps use energy (usually ATP hydrolysis). Naϩ high outside/Kϩ high inside. Because membranes are impermeable to most molecules, you must have a transporter (a protein) in the membrane to help molecules or ions move through it (Fig. 3-5). They are also called channels because they behave like selective holes in the membrane. Transporters are selective BG McGraw-Hill: Gilbert, Basic Concepts in Biochemistry, JN 5036 • 30 • Basic Concepts in Biochemistry + + K + K Channel No energy required Down gradient K ATP ADP+ Pi + K Pump Energy required Up gradient Figure 3-5 Moving from high to low concentration (CHANNEL) does not require the input of energy.
The head group contains oxygen and may be positively charged or neutral. The name of the phospholipid is dictated by the head group. The head and tail are attached through a phosphate diester. Sphingosine O NH C — — — — OH OϪ — Fatty acid — — H3C — (CH2)12 — CH — — CH3 + CH — CH — CH — CH2 — O — P — O — CH2 — CH2 — N — CH3 O CH3 phosphoryl choline unit Sphingomyelin Glycolipids are derived from sphingosine, but have a sugar unit, such as glucose or galactose attached instead of the choline unit.
Basic concepts in biochemistry: a students survival guide by Hiram Gilbert