By Yuri Dokshitzer
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Extra info for Basics of perturbative QCD
On the other hand, the characteristics of hard collisions are normally described by binary-encounter models of momentum and energy transfer. Models of excitation and ionization also diﬀer for electron and heavy charged particle impact because electron exchange must be included in models for incident electrons—this occurs because of the indistinguishability of incident and ejected electrons. Ionization models speciﬁc to electron and heavy particle impact will be independently discussed in the following sections of this chapter.
There are also many channels of energy loss that have not been included in Fig. 2 because they either contribute only a small amount to the total energy loss, or because we lack reliable data to assess their contribution. However, it is possible that the special nature of some of these less-probable interactions might have weighted important in the evolution of subsequent chemical reactions. , Refs. 16 and 17, and references therein). Although these interactions are relatively rare events, the emission of two or more electrons correlated in time and space might have important consequences on the subsequent chemistry .
Platzman  points out that in molecules, this is not necessarily so and superexcited states with energy exceeding the ionization potential may exist, which will dissociate into neutral fragments with a certain probability. 4. , the ionization Copyright © 2004 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC eﬃciency, determined by the ratio of ionization to the photoabsorption cross-section, varies with the energy until f18 eV, beyond which it approaches unity . In such cases, the cross-section formula given in Eq.
Basics of perturbative QCD by Yuri Dokshitzer