By Stanley Monkhouse
Cranial nerves are focused on head and neck functionality, and tactics resembling consuming, speech and facial features. This clinically orientated survey of cranial nerve anatomy and serve as, for college kids of medication, dentistry and speech remedy, may also be helpful for postgraduate physicians and GPs, and experts in head and neck healthcare. After an introductory part surveying cranial nerve association and tough fundamentals corresponding to ganglia, nuclei and mind stem pathways, the nerves are thought of in useful teams. In every one bankruptcy, the most anatomical positive aspects of every nerve are by way of scientific facets and information of scientific trying out. easy line diagrams accompany the textual content.
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Additional resources for Cranial Nerves Functional Anatomy
It is involuntary. Thus, in the trunk and limbs voluntary may be loosely equated with striated and somatic, and involuntary with smooth and visceral. 3 Additional component in cranial nerves: for branchial arches In the head and neck there is an additional group of muscles which are striated and are under voluntary control, but are classed 18 Organization of the cranial nerves as visceral because they develop in association with the cranial end of the gut tube. These are derivatives of the branchial or pharyngeal arches.
Our sense of smell is to a large extent linked with taste and basic physiological and psychological drives: it is therefore studied in connection with taste. Finally, vision, eye movements, balance and hearing are all interrelated and are considered together. Thus, the cranial nerves are considered in the following order: 1 the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal nerves (V, VII, XII); 2 the vagus, glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves (X, IX, XI); 3 autonomic function, taste sensation and olfaction (I); 4 vision and eye movements (II, III, IV, VI), and vestibular function and hearing (VIII).
Removal of food from fork. • Closing lips: orbicularis oris (facial nerve (VII)). • Elevation of mandible (occlusion): masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid (mandibular nerve (Vc)). • Tongue movements (hypoglossal nerve (XII)). • Mandibular movements: temporalis, masseter, pterygoids, etc. (mandibular nerve (Vc)). • Maintenance of bolus between teeth (in occlusal plane): – Buccinator (facial nerve (VII)). – Tongue (hypoglossal nerve (XII)). In a baby before weaning, the buccinator (VII) and the tongue (XII) are the principal muscles of sustenance producing the necessary sucking forces.
Cranial Nerves Functional Anatomy by Stanley Monkhouse