By Antoni Kapcia
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The essays during this quantity learn the construction, model, and use of technological know-how and know-how in Latin the United States. They problem the view that medical rules and know-how go back and forth unchanged from the worldwide North to the worldwide Sout -- -the view of know-how as "imported magic. " They describe not just exchange pathways for innovation, invention, and discovery but in addition how rules and applied sciences stream in Latin American contexts and transnationally. The contributors' explorations of those matters, and their exam of particular Latin American studies with technology and know-how, supply a broader, extra nuanced knowing of ways technology, know-how, politics, and tool engage some time past and present.
The essays during this booklet use equipment from background and the social sciences to enquire kinds of neighborhood construction and use of applied sciences; the flow of principles, humans, and artifacts in neighborhood and worldwide networks; and hybrid applied sciences and varieties of wisdom creation. They deal with such themes because the paintings of girl forensic geneticists in Colombia; the pioneering Argentinean use of fingerprinting expertise within the overdue 19th century; the layout, use, and that means of the XO Laptops created and allotted through the single desktop consistent with baby application; and the advance of nuclear power in Argentina, Mexico, and Chile.
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A lot of the literature at the Cuban Revolution appear to be mesmerised by means of the character and function of Fidel Castro, an interpretation which has frequently avoided a deeper political knowing of the Revolution's underlying buildings. the following Anthony Kapcia deals a much-needed corrective to 'Fidel-centric' histories of the Cuban revolution, focusing in its place on a much wider forged of characters unknown to informal observers.
Additional info for Cuba in Revolution: A History Since the Fifties
In the late 1960s, the leadership began to demand greater labour discipline, and in March 1971 ‘idleness’ and deliberate unemployment were made illegal, placing greater pressure on an economy already unable to provide economically productive employment for all. This measure was partly directed against the growing evidence of youth dissatisfaction and the worrying tendency for young Cubans to gather in groups on the streets, and also aimed to prevent any Cuban manifestation of a ‘hippy culture’; just as the Revolution’s growing ‘puritanism’, reinforced by isolation, had led to a suspicion of non-conformity, so too was there a growing intolerance of non-conformity in labour, lifestyle or sexual orientation.
It was no surprise then when one of the Revolution’s first measures enacted those ideas from 1959. A maximum benefiting from the revolution 53 landholding of 402 hectares was decreed (increased to 1,340 hectares if the estate’s productivity were 50 per cent higher than the national average),10 and, as in urban Cuba, renting was prohibited in July 1960, giving all tenants immediate title to a minimum of 27 hectares. A National Institute of Agrarian Reform (inra) was also established, formally with Castro and Guevara in key roles.
At a political level, however, the Campaign was fundamental. The mobilization itself, organized along military lines – with volunteers enlisted into brigades, the whole discourse of ‘campaigns’ and ‘battles’, and a guerrilla-like drive for adaptability and commitment – was vast, life-changing and signiﬁcant for the participants and newly literate alike. It took teenagers from their often comfortable urban homes (88 per cent of the brigadistas),5 trained them intensively and then sent them into the countryside to live with and teach a peasant family for months; this usually involved experiencing isolation, hardship and manual labour in often primitive conditions, and occasionally even danger (counter-revolutionary rebels were often active in the countryside, killing one early volunteer, Conrado, benefiting from the revolution 47 Benítez, after whom the brigades were then named), but it invariably transformed the perceptions and loyalties of the young brigadistas, giving them an important role and a stake in the whole Revolution.
Cuba in Revolution: A History Since the Fifties by Antoni Kapcia