By Peter Sigmund
This ebook represents quantity 2 of a 3-volume monograph on Particle Penetration and Radiation results. whereas quantity 1 addressed the elemental conception of scattering and preventing of fast element fees, i.e., protons, antiprotons and alpha debris, the current quantity makes a speciality of ions heavier than helium in addition to molecules and clusters over an strength diversity from a number of keV/u to some hundred MeV/u. The e-book addresses the principles in atomic-collision physics of a wide selection of software components inside of fabrics and floor technological know-how and engineering, micro and nano technology and know-how, radiation medication and biology in addition to nuclear and particle physics. difficulties were additional to all chapters. this could make the e-book precious for either self-study and complex college classes. An attempt has been made to set up a unified notation in the course of the monograph.
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This e-book represents quantity 2 of a 3-volume monograph on Particle Penetration and Radiation results. whereas quantity 1 addressed the elemental idea of scattering and preventing of fast element fees, i. e. , protons, antiprotons and alpha debris, the current quantity specializes in ions heavier than helium in addition to molecules and clusters over an strength diversity from a number of keV/u to a couple hundred MeV/u.
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Additional resources for Particle Penetration and Radiation Effects Volume 2: Penetration of Atomic and Molecular Ions
For a recent review you are referred to Arista (2006). Several theoretical predictions were based on the Fermi gas model described in Chap. 5, Vol. , 1992). Arista’s conclusion appears to be close to the view of Cross (1977) who considered the coupling between the ion and the electron gas to be weak and, consequently, considered the charge-state evolution as a sequence of capture and loss processes much like in a gas. As to the second aspect, in situ observation of charge states in solids is possible by X-ray spectrometry.
2 Application to Light Ions Quantitative estimates in the literature have focused on protons, following pioneering work by Neelavathi et al. (1974). Key questions have been: 1. Under which conditions can a proton moving through an electron gas bind an electron, and 2. Under which conditions can a proton bind two electrons. An illuminating review of this aspect has been provided by Arista (2006). With a focus on projectile speeds well below the Fermi velocity, theoretical tools employed in those studies were taken from condensed-matter physics, going far beyond the simple linear theory sketched in the previous section.
D. et al. 5-MeV/u range transversing the rare gases, polycrystalline solids, and axial channels in gold. K. and Lauritsen T. (1940): Cloud-chamber studies of ﬁssion fragment tracks. K. and Teller E. (1941): On the momentum loss of heavy ions. , Wasserman N. D. (1970): Calculated ionization potentials for multiply charged ions. Atomic Data 2, 63–99 Clementi E. and Roetti C. (1974): Roothaan-Hartree-Fock atomic wave functions. C. (1977): Charge states of fast protons in solids. M. (1930): Note on exchange phenomena in the Thomas atom.
Particle Penetration and Radiation Effects Volume 2: Penetration of Atomic and Molecular Ions by Peter Sigmund